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High Blood Pressure Confusion

In this article, we are going to discuss high blood pressure and confusion. High blood pressure or hypertension is a medical condition in which the pressure of blood in the arteries is elevated for a long period. In clinical practice, a pressure of 120 mmHg systolic and 80 mmHg diastolic is referred to as normal blood pressure. However, in hypertension, the blood pressure of the affected individual is greater or equal to 140 mmHg for systolic and 100mmHg for diastolic pressure.

generally cause no signs and symptoms but it might result in a lot of pathologic conditions in a long run such as stroke, loss of vision, atrial fibrillation, and coronary artery disease [2,3,4,5]

CATEGORIZATION OF HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

Essential hypertension and secondary hypertension are the two categories of high blood pressure. Following are them.

  • ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION

The most common form of hypertension, around 95 percent of the individual with hypertension are considered to have essential hypertension or primary hypertension. This type of hypertension results due to genetic and lifestyle factors i.e. the risk of developing hypertension is increased by including excess salt in the diet, obesity, smoking, and the use of alcohol.

In a very small percentage of individuals i.e. only 5 percent; the blood pressure may reach very high (i.e. 200 mmHg systolic pressure and 120mmHg diastolic). This is called malignant hypertension and may result in death in only 1-2 years after developing if not treated promptly. In addition, this may be associated with kidney failure and hemorrhaging of the retina.

  • SECONDARY HYPERTENSION

To secondary hypertensive included the remaining 5-10 percent of cases. This type of hypertension may be due to any endocrine disease such as hyperthyroidism, hyperaldosteronism, hypothyroidism, or hyperparathyroidism. However, kidney disease is the most common cause of secondary hypertension chronic kidney disease or long-term use of birth control pills.

RISK FACTORS OF HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

  • OBESITY

The increase in this cause is directly related to the increase in body mass index i.e. the more you are overweight the more there is a risk of developing hypertension.

  • AGE

As you age, the risk of developing hypertension increases. The risk is higher in men of about 60 years and above. However post-menopausal women are at an even greater risk to develop hypertensive disease.

  • RACIAL BACKGROUND

Africans are susceptible to developing hypertension with many serious complications such as heart attack, failure of kidney, and stroke.

  • SMOKING AND TOBACCO USE

Smoking not only increases the heart rate, but it might also damage the walls of blood vessels which may contribute to developing hypertension and atherosclerosis.

  • ALCOHOL ABUSE

Heavy drinking can have a bad impact on the health of the heart and blood vessels which might result in developing hypertension and heart diseases such as heart attack.

STRESSDEPRESSION

Stress, anxiety, and depression may result in an elevation in this disease.

  • SALTS IN THE DIET

Additionally, too much sodium and too little potassium may result in retention of water in the body which may drastically increase blood pressure.

  • STROKE

Hypertension can cause atherosclerosis i.e. the hardening of blood vessel walls which then might lead to a stroke or heart attack.

  • ANEURYSM

The increase in blood pressure for a long period might make the vessel wall weak and thin. These thin vessels can bulge and balloon out, and might even rupture which can be life-threatening.

  • METABOLIC SYNDROME

It includes a cluster of disorders including high triglyceride and cholesterol levels, an increase in body mass index, high blood pressure, and a high level of blood sugar level. Furthermore, the HDL cholesterol level which is good for the body is also decreased in metabolic syndrome.

MANAGEMENT

  • LIFESTYLE MODIFICATION

In short, by simply modifying the lifestyle habits, you can prevent complications. And however, you can manage hypertension. You have to make it a habit of working out at the gym and training your heart while having a brisk walk daily. Moreover, the body mass index should be maintained in the ideal state and prevent adding excessive salt in the diet as it may drastically increase the blood pressure and retain the water in the body.

Since anxiety and depression may also contribute to hypertension, it is important to work on mental health and lead a happy and healthy life. Meditation and yoga may help to relieve anxiety symptoms.

  • MEDICATIONS

Hypertensive drugs include calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, and thiazide diuretics, All these are considered to be the fine line medications recommended for hypertension [6,7].

Finally, people must improve their good mental health and physical health to control their blood pressure above all.

REFERENCES

  1. Naish J, Court DS (2014). Medical sciences (2 ed.). p. 562. ISBN 9780702052491.
  2. Lackland DT, Weber MA (May 2015). “Global burden of cardiovascular disease and stroke: hypertension at the core”. The Canadian Journal of Cardiology31 (5): 569–71.
  3. Mendis S, Puska P, Norrving B (2011). Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control (PDF) (1st ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization in collaboration with the World Heart Federation and the World Stroke Organization. p. 38. ISBN 9789241564373. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 August 2014.
  4. Hernandorena I, Duron E, Vidal JS, Hanon O (July 2017). “Treatment options and considerations for hypertensive patients to prevent dementia”. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy (Review). 18 (10): 989–1000. doi:10.1080/14656566.2017.1333599. PMID 28532183. S2CID 46601689.
  5. Lau DH, Nattel S, Kalman JM, Sanders P (August 2017). “Modifiable Risk Factors and Atrial Fibrillation”. Circulation (Review). 136 (6): 583–596. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.023163. PMID 28784826.
  6. Wright, James M.; Musini, Vijaya M.; Gill, Rupam (18 April 2018). “First-line drugs for hypertension”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4: CD001841.
  7. Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, Peto R, Collins R (December 2002). “Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies”. Lancet. 360 (9349): 1903–13.

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